Unfortunately, birth control methods are not strictly followed by couples in our country, and for this reason, many families may encounter surprise children. It should not be perceived as simply not using any birth control method. Unfortunately, problems related to the use of birth control methods such as continuing to use expired spirals and carelessness while using condoms are among the common situations.
Before we jump into which birth control methods and how, let's first take a look at the effects of these methods on general public health.
What Are the Benefits of Birth Control Methods?
Birth control methods have many benefits, and these benefits can become very important both for health and for the future of the family. To list them briefly;
What are Birth Control Methods?
Birth control methods, with the influence of advancing medicine, have been divided into many different branches, and at least one of them is among the options preferred by couples. In general, we will divide birth control methods into reversible and non-reversible options and consider the options below.
Reversible Birth Control Methods
Condom – Condom Use
Condoms, which are worn on the head of the male genitalia, have a pregnancy protection rate exceeding 90% and are among the best protection methods for general health, as they prevent the transmission of sexual diseases as well as preventing pregnancy. Although condom use is generally preferred by unmarried men today, it can also be used as a permanent birth control method for married couples from time to time.
Use of Vaginal Diaphragm
Vaginal diaphragm and female condom can be defined as a kind of female version of condom. Both methods of protection are based on applying a barrier to the vagina, but these products must be used with spermicide gels called spermicide. Otherwise, unwanted pregnancies may be caused at the time of removal of the diaphragm. The protection level of this method from diseases is slightly lower than the male condom.
Birth Control Pills
Birth control pills contain estrogen and progesterone hormones, and each pill in the box must be used on a certain day. These pills prevent pregnancy by suppressing the woman's ovulation cycle and therefore do not require an additional method of contraception. However, because they are a hormone-supported contraceptive method, they are generally not recommended by doctors, especially for those with the following conditions:
Since these ailments are affected by birth control pills, they prevent the application of this birth control method, but birth control pills also have many benefits such as reduced risk of uterine and ovarian cancer, reduced menstrual irregularities, protection from uterine infections, and reduced risk of osteoporosis. However, it should be noted that in very long-term use, problems such as thinning of the inner wall of the uterus can also be seen.
Progesterone hormone injection is a similar protection method to the birth control pill, but you can take these injections as an intramuscular injection in monthly or 3-month periods. Its effects are not different from pills in general.
Subcutaneous Implant Use
İzmir subcutaneous implants are among the protection methods that secrete hormones regularly and provide active protection for approximately 5 years. However, side effects such as weight gain and fluid accumulation in the body are known.
The spirals, which have two types, with and without hormones, are inserted through the cervix and have a T-shaped shape in the uterus, preventing the sperm from reaching the tubes. Although copper and hormone-free versions are generally used, hormonal types can also be preferred in patients with heavy and irregular menstrual bleeding. However, it should not be forgotten that hormonal types also release progesterone as in birth control pills.
Spirals provide active protection for 5 to 10 years, and the woman does not need to make any effort in this process. However, some women may have side effects such as pain, bleeding and infections, so it may be necessary to stop using the spiral.
Irreversible Birth Control Methods
Having Tubes Tied in Women
Thanks to the surgical ligation of the tubes used by the sperm to reach the egg in women, pregnancy can be prevented with a success rate of over 99%, and there is no need to do anything afterwards. However, since this tube ligation procedure causes sticking in the tubes, unfortunately, couples who want to have children in the future do not have a chance to conceive naturally, because even if the ligation point is opened, the path followed by the tubes is destroyed.
However, even if you have this method applied, you still have the chance to benefit from IVF treatment, although it is normally a little less likely.
Tubal Tie in Men
This method, which is applied by connecting and burning the tubes that allow the sperm in the testicles to be transferred to the sperm chamber, does not have the possibility of recycling. Even if a limited amount of success has been achieved with reopening the tubes in recent years, usually men are not able to conceive a woman naturally after this procedure. However, it should not be overlooked that this method poses great difficulties in IVF treatment, because a method called testicular aspiration must be applied to collect sperm.
What are the Methods Considered as Birth Control Method?
Some of the birth control methods applied centuries ago are not even considered as serious methods today, and therefore they are not recommended by experts.
This method, in which the man expels his genitals and ejaculates before full ejaculation during sexual intercourse, has a very low protection rate. Because even if full ejaculation does not occur, unfortunately, there are sperms in the small amount of fluid that comes out of the tip of the penis during intercourse, and these sperm have the possibility to progress in the uterus.
This method, which is defined as a woman's sexual intercourse when there is no ovulation by following her menstrual cycle, can become ineffective with a change in the ovulation pattern, and it is not very safe against the threat of sperm that can survive for a few days in the uterus. In addition, it should be noted that it is a method open to many complicating effects such as calculation errors and restricted sexual intercourse.
The next day's pill
The morning-after pills are by no means a contraceptive. These pills are produced against unwanted pregnancies such as abuse and rape, and the victims are prevented from becoming pregnant. However, women who constantly have unprotected sexual intercourse and are accustomed to using these pills, unfortunately, become pregnant with many uterine and reproductive system disorders in the coming years. This method is strictly not recommended, except in very necessary cases.